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Exercises

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Ruĝkufulino

Iam estis knabino.[Once a upon a time theres was a girl.]|mentioned for the first time, identity is not important → no article knabino loĝis en malgranda vilaĝo proksime de arbaro.[The girl lived with her mother in a small village near the/a forest.]|1st gap: the girl has already been mentioned → with article|2nd gap: some village (identity is not important) → no article|3rd gap - two options:|1st - a specific forest (the one near the village) → with article|2nd: - some unknown forest (which exact forest is not important) → no article Ŝia avino loĝis en bela dometo en arbaro.[Her grandmother lived in a pretty little house in the forest.]|1st gap: the house is mentioned for the first time → no article|2ng gap: the same forest that was mentioned before → with article Kiam knabino estis eta, ŝia avino kudris kufon el ruĝa veluro por ŝi.[When the girl was little, her grandmother sewed her a cape made of red velvet.]1st gap: the girl has already been mentioned → with article|2nd gap: the cape is mentioned for the first time → no article|3rd gap: type of material → no article kufo estis tiom bela, ke knabino ĉiutage surhavis ĝin; tial ĉiuj nomis ŝin Ruĝkufulino.[The cape was so beautiful that the girl wore it every day, so everybody called her Little Red Riding Hood.]|1st and 2nd gap: the cape and the girl have already been mentioned → with article|3rd gap: name/proper noun → no articlel

Unu tagon avino malsaniĝis.[One day the grandmother became ill.]|the grandmother has already been mentioned → with article patrino venigis Ruĝkufulinon en kuirejon kaj diris:[The mother called little red riding hood into the kitchen and said:]|a specific mother (Red Riding Hood’s mother) → with article “Ĉi tie estas kuko kaj vino, alportu ilin al avino.” [“Here is (some) cake and wine, bring them to your grandmother.”]|1st and 2nd gap: first time the wine and cake have been mentioned → no article|3rd gap: the grandmother has already been mentioned → with article

Kiam Ruĝkufulino eniris arbaron, ŝi renkontis lupon.[As Little Red Riding Hood entered the forest, she met a/the wolf.]|1st gap: the forest has already been mentioned → article|2nd gap - 2 options:|1st: first mention of the wolf → no article|2nd: because the wolf plays a big part in the story and many people know this fairytale already, we could also use an article here.
“Kien vi iras, Ruĝkufulino?” lupo demandis.[ “Where are you going Little Red Riding Hood?” asked the wolf.]|the wolf has already been mentioned → with article
“Mi iras al dometo de mia avino,” respondis Ruĝkufulino. “Mi havas kukon kaj vinon por ŝi.” [“I’m going to my grandmother’s house” answered Little Red Riding Hood. “I have cake and wine for her.”]|1st gap: a particular house (her grandmother’s house) → with article|2nd and 3rd gap: first mention of cake and wine for the wolf → no article

“Ĉu vi ne volas pluki florojn por via avino?” lupo proponis. “Rigardu, belaj floroj tie certe plaĉus al via avino.”[“Don’t you want to pick (some) flowers for your grandmother?” suggested the wolf. “Look, your grandmother would surely like the beautiful flowers over there.”|1st gap: flowers are mentioned for the first time (unspecified flowers) → no article|2nd gap: a specific wolf → with article|3rd gap: specific flowers (the ones over there) → with article]

“Prave!” diris knabino kaj komencis pluki florojn.[ “Thats right!” said the girl and began to pick (the) flowers.]|1st gap: a specific girl (Little Red Riding Hood)|2nd gap - 2 options:|1st: - a few of the flowers → no article|2nd: - all of the flowers → with article

Sed lupo rapide kuris al domo de avino.[But the wolf ran quickly to the grandmother’s house.]|all three have already been mentioned→ all three with article Ĝi saltis sur liton, kie avino dormis kaj englutis ŝin.[He jumped onto the bed where the grandmother was sleeping and swallowed her.]|1st gap: a specific bed (the one where the grandmother lay) → article|2nd gap: the grandmother has already been mentioned → article Poste ĝi surmetis vestaĵojn de avino kaj kuŝiĝis en liton.[Then he put on the grandmother’s clothes and lied down in the bed.]|1st gap - 2 options:|1st: some of the grandmother’s clothes → no article|2nd - the specific clothes that the grandmother was wearing → article|2nd and 3rd gap: The grandmother and the bed have already been mentioned → article

Finfine, Ruĝkufulino alvenis al dometo. Ŝi malfermis pordon kaj eniris.[Finally, Little Red Riding Hood arrived at the house. She opened the door and went in.]|1st gap: the house has already been mentioned → article|2nd gap: a specific door (the entrance of the house) → article Ŝi ne rekonis lupon kaj komencis paroli kun ĝi. Sed lupo englutis ankaŭ ŝin. Sata li nun ekdormis kaj tre laŭte ronkis.[She didn’t recognize the wolf and began to talk to him. But the wolf swalled her too. Satisfied, he then went to sleep and snored very loudly.]|1st and 2nd gap: the wolf has already been mentioned → article

Kiam ĉasisto preterpasis domon, li miris, kial maljuna virino tiom laŭte ronkis.As a/the hunter was walking past the house, he wondered why the old lady was snoring so loudly.|1st gap: - 2 options:|- first mention of the hunter → no article|- a particular hunter (in this forest there is only one) → article Li rigardis tra fenestro kaj vidis lupon.[He looked through a/the window and saw a/the wolf.]|1st gap - 2 options:|1st: - he looked through one of many windows → no article|2nd: - the gradmother’s bedroom only has one window → article|2nd gap - 2 options:|1st: - the wolf is new to the hunter → no article|2nd: - the wilf has already been mentioned → article Per tranĉilo li malfermis ventron de la lupo, de kie Ruĝkufulino kaj ŝia avino eliris.[With a/the knife, he opened the wolf’s belly and Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother came out.]|1st gap - 2 options:|1st: - first mention of the knife → no article|- a specific knife (the hunter only has one knife on him) → article|3rd gap: a particular belly (the wolf’s belly) → article