Construction and Comparison – Exercises

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Exercises

Put the adjective in the correct form (singular/plural, nominative/accusative).

  1. Niaj (nova)  najbaroj estas (afabla) .[Our new neighbours are friendly.]|nominative, plural (identified by the -j in najbaroj which the adjective also receives)
  2. Via hundo havas (mallonga)  hararon.[Your dog has short hair.]|accusative, singular (identified by the -n in felon, which the adjective also recieves)
  3. En mia ĝardeno estas (bela)  floroj.[In my garden there are beautiful flowers.]|nominative, plural (identified by the -j in floroj, which the adjective aslo receives)
  4. Tiu viro surhavas (nigra)  jakon kaj pantalonon.[That man is wearing a black jacket and black trousers.]|accusative, plural (accusative -n ending from the noun, plural -j ending, because the adjective modifies both nouns - black jacket and black trousers)

Choose an adjective or an adverb.

  1. La infano ĝojas pri glaciaĵo.[The child is happy about a big ice-cream.]|granda (adjective) describes the noun glaciaĵo
  2. La hundo bojas .[The dog barks loudly.]|laŭte (adverb) describes the way the dog barks
  3. Hodiaŭ estas .[Today it is warm.]|when there is no noun/pronoun in a sentence, we use an adverb (hodiaŭ = today = adverb of time)
  4. La arbo estas .[The tree is old.]|aĝa (adjective) describes the noun arbo
  5. Nia kato ofte dormas en nia ŝranko.[Our cat often sleeps in our small cupboard.]|malgranda (adjective) describes the noun ŝranko

Complete the sentences with malpli/malplej … or pli/plej mal…

  1. rapideco:
    bradipo (3 m/min), heliko (0,5 m/min), giganta testudo (6 m/min)

    La bradipo estas ol la giganta testudo, sed la heliko estas la besto.[The sloth is slower (literally: less fast) than the tortoise but the snail is slowest (literally: least fast) animal.]|All three animals are slow (they are some of the slowest animals in the world) so we use mal- before the adjective.
  2. alteco:
    Mont-Everesto (8848 m), Blanka Monto (4810), Kilimanĝaro (5895 m)

    Kilimanĝaro estas ol Mont-Everesto, sed la monto el inter la tri estas Blanka Monto.[Mount Kilimanjaro is smaller (literally: less high) than Mount Everest but the smallest (literally: least high) of the three mountains is Mont Blanc.]|All three mountains are high (they are some of the highest mountains in the world), so we use mal- before pli/plej.
  3. profundeco:
    Vostok Lago (670 m), Malavia Lago (706 m), Bajkalo (1642 m)

    Malavia Lago en Afriko estas ol Bajkalo en Siberio, sed la el inter la tri estas Vostok Lago en Antarkto.[Lake Malawi in Africa shallower (literally: less deep) than Lake Baikal in Siberia, but the shallowest (literally: least deep) of the three lakes is Lake Vostok in Antarctica.]|All three lakes are deep (they are three of the deepest lakes in the world) so we use mal- before pli/plej.

Write the adjective or adverb in right comparative form.

  1. Trajno ne estas tiel (rapida)  aeroplano.[The train is not as fast as the plane.]|Adjective (comparison between two nouns)|key word: tiel… kiel
  2. Mi kuiras multe malpli (bona)  vi.[I cook worse than you.]|Adverb (modifies the verb cook)|comparative (key word: malpli)
  3. Mario estas la (inteligenta)  lernanto de sia lernejo.[Mario is the smartest/dumbest pupil at his school.]|Adjective (describes the person)|Superlative (key word: la before the adjective)
  4. Lia kato estas (granda)  kiel mia hundo.[His cat is as big as my dog.]|Adjective (comparision between two nouns)|Positive (key word: kiel)
  5. Alan manĝis (multa)  el inter ĉiuj knaboj.[of all the boys Alan ate the most/least.]|Adverb (describes the verb eat)|Superlative (key word: la before the adverb)
  6. Pomoj estas (sana)  ol terpomfingroj.[Apples are healthier than chips.]|Plural adjective (comparison between two plural nouns)|Comparative (Key word: ol)
  7. Tio estas la (bela)  urbo kiun mi konas.[That is the most beautiful/the ugliest city that I know.]|Adjective (describes a noun)|Superlative (key word: la before the adjective)
  8. La knabino saltas tiel (alta)  ŝia frato.[The girl jumps as high as her brother.]|Adverb (describes the verb jump)|Positive (key word: tiel)
  9. Hodiaŭ pluvis (forta)  ol hieraŭ.[Today it rained harder than yesterday.]|Adverb (describes the verb rain)|Comparative (key word: ol)
  10. Oranĝoj gustas pli (dolĉa)  citronoj.[Oranges taste sweeter that lemons.]|Adverb (describes the verb taste)|Comparative (key word: pli)