Interrogative Pronouns


The interrogative pronouns are kio/kion, kiu/kiun/kiuj, kies. They replace the nouns that we are asking after in questions.


what (subject) kio Kio estas tio?What is that?
what (object) kion Kion vi manĝis?What did you eat?
who (singular) kiu Kiu diris tion?Who said that?
who (plural) kiuj Kiuj estas tiuj knaboj?Who are those boys over there?
to whom al kiu Al kiu vi donis la libron?To whom did you give the book?/Who did you give the book to?
who/whom kiun Kiun vi demandis?Who did you ask?
whose kies Kies taŝo estas tiu?Whose bag is that?

We use the nominitive when we ask about a subject or an object with a preposition.

Mi diris tion. → Kiu diris tion?I said that. → Who said that?
Mi donis la libron al knabino. → Al kio vi donis la libron?I gave the book to the girl. → To whom did you give the book?

We use the accusative when we ask about an object (used without a preposition).

Mi manĝis kukon. Kion vi manĝis?I ate cake. → What did you eat?
Mi demandis la instruiston. → Kiun vi demandis?I asked the teacher. → Who did you ask?

Plural Interrogative Pronous

Interrogative pronouns also have a plural form in Esperanto (with the exception of kies). We use the plural form whenever it is apparent from the question or previous sentence that we are dealing with multiple people/things etc.

Kiuj estas tiuj knaboj?Who are those boys over there?

(see: Questions, Table of Words)